Engineering
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Cholecystectomy as seen through a laparoscope


Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, keyhole surgery, or pinhole surgery is a modern surgical technique in which operations in the abdomen are performed through small incisions (usually 0.5-1.5 cm as compared to larger incisions needed in traditional surgical procedures.

Instruments[]

Electrosurgical devices are commonly used in laparoscopic procedures. The key element in laparoscopic surgery is the use of a laparoscope.

Laparoscope[]

A laparoscope consists of a telescopic rod lens system, that is usually connected to a video camera.

Carbon dioxide gas[]

The abdomen area is usually insufflated. Therefore carbon dioxide gas is used to create a working and viewing space.

This gas. is common to the human body and can be absorbed by tissue and also removed by the respiratory system.

Properties[]

Carbon dioxide gas is important because the abdomen is essentially blown up like a balloon (insufflated), elevating the abdominal wall above the internal organs like a dome.

It is also non-flammable, which is important because of the electrosurgical devices which are commonly used in laparoscopic procedures.

Cable connection[]

Electrosurgical devices are attached to a fiber optic or Optical fiber cable, where ever required.

The system also is connected to a 'cold' light source (halogen or xenon), to illuminate the operative field, inserted through a 5 mm or 10 mm cannula or Trocar to view the operative field.

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