Medical imaging refers to the techniques and processes used to create images of, manly the human body (or parts thereof), for clinical purposes (medical procedures seeking to reveal, diagnose or examine disease) or medical science (including the study of normal anatomy and physiology).
As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology (in the wider sense), radiological sciences, endoscopy, (medical) thermography, medical photography and microscopy (e.g. for human pathological investigations), etc.
Measurement and recording techniques which are not primarily designed to produce images, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) and others, but which produce data susceptible to be represented as maps (i.e. containing positional information), can be seen as forms of medical imaging.
In the clinical context, medical imaging is generally equated to radiology or "clinical imaging" and the medical practitioner responsible for interpreting (and sometimes acquiring) the images is a radiologist. Diagnostic radiography designates the technical aspects of medical imaging and in particular the acquisition of medical images. The radiographer or radiologic technologist is usually responsible for acquiring medical images of diagnostic quality, although some radiological interventions are performed by radiologists.
This includes Electron microscope, Fluoroscopy, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Photoacoustic imaging etc.
The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons as the source of illumination, magnifying at levels up to 2,000,000 times.
Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structures of the body in a similar fashion to radiography, but employs a constant input of x rays, at a lower dose rate. Contrast media, such as barium, iodine, and air are used to visualize internal organs as they work.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Photoacoustic imaging is a recently developed hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photoacoustic effect.
Medical ultrasonography uses high frequency broadband sound waves in the megahertz range that are reflected by tissue to varying degrees to produce (up to 3D) images.
Some of the above techniques are still at a research stage and not yet used in clinical routines.
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