Common optical phenomena are often due to the interaction of light from the sun or moon with the atmosphere, clouds, water, or dust and other particulates. One common example would be the rainbow, when light from the sun is reflected and refracted by water droplets.
In practice, the vast majority of optical phenomena can be accounted for using the electromagnetic description of light.
The field of optics has its own identity, societies, and conferences.
The pure science aspects of the field are often called optical science or optical physics.
Applied optical sciences are often called optical engineering.
Applications of optical engineering related specifically to illumination systems are called illumination engineering.
Each of these disciplines tends to be quite different in its applications, technical skills, focus, and professional affiliations.
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