The **orifice equation** describes the rate of flow of liquid through an orifice.

The equation can be represented as:

$ Q = C_{d}A\sqrt{2gh} $

where Q = flow (cubic metres per second)

$ C_{d} $ = coefficient of discharge

A = area of orifice (square metres)

g = acceleration from gravity (9.81 m/s^2)

h = head acting on the centreline (m)

For a circular orifice, the equation becomes:

$ Q = C_{d} (1/4 \pi D^2)\sqrt{2gh} $

Typical values for the coefficient of discharge are:

Sharp orifice: 0.62

Tube: 0.80

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